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神秘可怕的吸血怪物“卓柏卡布拉”
没有人不爱听有关怪物的惊险故事。问题在于,怪物总是出现在遥远的土地上,出现在湖底,又或者是森林深处,我们从来都只能透过模糊的照片,或是从不可信的目击者口中得知有关怪物的信息,这加深了怪物身上的神秘感,而我们只能获知不可靠的二手消息这一状况也就不足为奇了。
本杰明·拉德福德(Benjamin Radford)起先也是被这样半真半假的消息吸引住了,他对一种据称类似于吸血鬼的生物“卓柏卡布拉”(chupacabra)产生了兴趣。这种生物最早发现于南美洲,然而有关它的故事后来却在全世界传播开来,当然,这当中就包括了本杰明的家乡——美国新墨西哥州(New Mexico)。
“这在我们当地,一直是一桩神秘事件,”拉德福德说道。“我不用去因弗内斯(Inverness)或者婆罗洲(Borneo),它就在我家后院。”好在卓柏卡布拉似乎没有其他怪物那么羞涩,所以拉德福德能好好观察一下,所谓的怪物卓柏卡布拉到底是不是真的。
有关卓柏卡布拉的传说最先起于20世纪90年代后期的波多黎各,那里的人们这样形容卓柏卡布拉:两足动物,约四、五英尺高,眼睛非常大,背部有一排凸刺,生着两对长爪。人们声称,这种怪物杀害牲畜,并吸食牲畜的血,基于其此种行径,人们给它起名卓柏卡布拉,在西班牙语中是“吸羊怪”的意思。
在历时五年的广泛调查中,拉德福德最远去过尼加拉瓜丛林,他甚至找到了第一个发现这种怪物的人,可谓卓柏卡布拉“零号病患”(patient zero)。
这个人名为玛德琳·托兰提诺(Madelyne Tolentino),来自波多黎各东部小镇卡诺瓦诺斯(Canóvanas)。1995年,她从自家窗户亲眼看见了一只看似外星生物的可怕动物。
消息传播的速度快得惊人。之后又有不少目击报告,人们不由将其与“牲畜被吸干血液”这样的媒体报道联系了起来。有关卓柏卡布拉的传说在大范围内传播开来。首先是传遍了波多黎各岛,接着传至拉美其它国家地区,以及美国南部各州。一时间,有关卓柏卡布拉的消息也在网上盛传开来,尤其引起了那些不明飞行物热衷人士及阴谋论者的兴趣。显然,他们应当从卓柏卡布拉的尸体入手。这些尸体大多出现在得克萨斯州,以及美国其他西南部州。拉德福德总共观察记录了十来头。它们的长相非常可怕:无毛,瘦骨嶙峋,皮肤像被烧过一样。
然而,这些生物的DNA却显示,它们只不过是极为普通的动物,丛林狼、狗,或是浣熊,其中一个竟然是鱼类。
虽然DNA证据确凿,但这一版本的故事结局令人感到蹊跷。那些发现及射杀这些动物的人大多是农场主,或附近村民,如果是丛林狼之类的话,他们应该是可以认出来的。为什么他们会产生如此混淆呢?
“这些动物之所以被误认为卓柏卡布拉,是因为它们染上了兽疥癣(sarcoptic mange),失去了毛发,”拉德福德解释道。
兽疥癣因诱发皮肤发痒的疥螨(Sarcoptesscabei)钻进表皮而得,是一种常见病症。美国得克萨斯州农工大学(Texas A&M University)的艾莉森·迪赛尔(Alison Diesel)专门研究动物皮肤炎症情况,她认为,这种疾病非常可怕,足以让普通动物变得像怪兽一般。

实际上,如果我们比较真正的吸血动物——比如吸血蝙蝠——与卓柏卡布拉的特征,会发现二者之间并无相似之处。舒特认为,吸血蝙蝠身形小巧,行迹鬼祟,特殊的牙齿和消化系统使其能够从血液中吸收营养。
像狗那么大的动物“如果依靠血液生存,恐怕很快就会因饥饿而死,”原因是这些动物无法依靠血液提供脂肪等关键的生存要素。
除了这些清晰可辨的咬痕,拉德福德认为他知道为什么那些忧心忡忡的农场主要把家畜的死怪罪于嗜血动物了。一旦发现一具神秘动物尸体之后,他们通常会研究,甚至切开它,他们认为里面的血液一定会喷涌出来——然而事实却令他们备感惊奇。
“动物死后,其心脏停止跳动,血压也消失了。”拉德福德解释道。“血液会渗入躯体的最底部,凝固,变厚,产生尸斑现象(lividity),这会给大家一种错觉,以为这个动物的血被吸干了。”
那么,如果有关卓柏卡布拉的神秘传说最终都被证明仅仅是再普通不过的自然现象,为什么有关它的故事至今仍会被大家激烈讨论? ………
Mysterious and horrible vampire monster "Zhubo Kabra"
No one doesn't like to hear the thrilling stories about monsters. The problem is that monsters always appear on distant land, at the bottom of the lake, or deep in the forest. We can only know about monsters through blurred photos or from untrustworthy eyewitnesses. This has deepened the mystery of the monsters, and it is not surprising that we can only know the status of unreliable second-hand news.
  Benjamin Radford was first attracted to such a half-truth, and he became interested in a creature called the vampire "chupacabra". This creature was first discovered in South America, but the story about it later spread throughout the world, including, of course, Benjamin's hometown, New Mexico.
“This is a mysterious event in our area,” said Radford. “I don’t have to go to Inverness (Inverness) or Borneo (Borneo), it’s in my backyard.” Zhuo Bocabra seems to be ashamed of no other monsters, so Radford can take a good look at the so-called monster Zhuo Bocabula is not true.
  The legend about Zhuo Bocabra first appeared in Puerto Rico in the late 1990s, where people described the Zhuo Bocabra: biped, about four or five feet tall, with very large eyes and a row of convexities on the back. Sting, born with two pairs of long claws. It is claimed that this monster kills livestock and sucks the blood of livestock. Based on its behavior, people named it Zhuo Bokabra, which means "sucking the sheep" in Spanish.
  In an extensive five-year investigation, Radford went to the jungle of Nicaragua the most, and he even found the first person to find such a monster. It can be said that Zhuo Bocabra "zero patient" (patient zero) .
  This man is called Madeleyne Tolentino, from the eastern town of Canóvanas in Puerto Rico. In 1995, she saw a terrible animal that looked like an alien creature from her own window.
  The speed of the message spread is amazing. Afterwards, there were a lot of eyewitness reports, and people couldn’t help but link them to media reports like “the animals were sucked up by blood”. The legend about Zhuo Bocabra spreads on a large scale. The first was spread across Puerto Rico and then to other Latin American countries, as well as to the southern states of the United States. For a time, the news about Zhuo Bocabra was also rumored on the Internet, especially the interest of those UFO enthusiasts and conspiracy theorists. Obviously, they should start with the body of Zhuo Bokabra. Most of these bodies appear in Texas, as well as other southwestern states of the United States. Radford has recorded a total of ten heads. Their looks are terrible: hairless, skinny, and the skin is burnt.
  However, the DNA of these creatures shows that they are just very ordinary animals, jungle wolves, dogs, or raccoons, one of which is actually a fish.
  Although the DNA evidence is conclusive, the ending of this version of the story is embarrassing. Most of the people who discovered and shot these animals were farmers, or nearby villagers. If they were jungle wolves, they should be recognizable. Why are they so confused?
  "These animals were mistaken for Zhuo Bocabra because they had sarcoptic mange and lost their hair," Radford explained.
  Alison Diesel of the Texas A&M University (Texas A&M University) specializes in research. Animal skin inflammation, she believes that the disease is very scary enough to make ordinary animals become like monsters.

  In fact, if we compare the characteristics of real blood-sucking animals - such as vampire bats - and Zhuo Bocabula, we will find that there is no similarity between the two. Shute believes that vampire bats are small and sneaky, special. The teeth and digestive system make it possible to absorb nutrients from the blood.
  Animals as big as dogs "If you rely on blood to survive, you will soon die from hunger," because these animals cannot rely on blood to provide key survival factors such as fat.
  In addition to these clearly identifiable bite marks, Radford believes that he knows why those worried farms blame the death of livestock on bloodthirsty animals. Once a mysterious animal body is discovered, they usually study and even cut it. They think that the blood inside will be spewed out - but the facts are surprising.
  "After the animal dies, its heart stops beating and blood pressure disappears," Radford explained. "The blood will penetrate into the bottom of the body, solidify, thicken, and produce lividity, which will give you a The illusion that the blood of this animal has been drained."
  Then, if the mysterious legend about Zhuo Bokabul is finally proved to be a normal and ordinary phenomenon, why is the story about it still being discussed intensely? ………

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