专业词汇(合作翻译)

Writing a SCP can be hard, we know. It can be hard coming up with a good idea. It can be hard to get the clinical tone down right, especially if you're a new writer or are used to writing in a different, more plot-based style. That being said, there are certain common misuses of technical terminology which drive us nuts. Try to not abuse these words.



语法与常规用词

注:由于英语与中文的语法不同,常见的措辞错误也会不同,本段有可能需要根据中国分部的情况进行调整。~Asriel
you're/your, there/they're/their, to/too/two, its/it's
These are the most commonly abused words online. If they were animals, they'd be starring in an ASPCA commercial specifically designed to make you feel ashamed of being a human being. You can look up their correct usage pretty much anywhere online. MAKE SURE YOU DON'T FUCK THESE UP.
affect/effect
Another commonly abused word pair. Although the two words are related, "affect" is a verb and "effect" is a noun (usually). To "affect" something is to make some sort of change or influence to it. An "effect" is whatever the result of that change or influence is. You affect something to have an effect on it. To make things more complicated, "effect" can also be used as a verb meaning to bring about or cause (e.g. "to effect change"), and "affect" can be used as a noun meaning the observable parts of their emotional state (e.g. "the agent spoke calmly and emotionlessly, with a flat affect.")
的/地/得,原形/原型,泄漏/泄露,不止/不只 等
这些是网上最常被滥用的词。 如果它们是动物,它们可以出演一部专门用来让你感到愧为人类的ASPCA1广告。 你可以在网上任何地方查到它们正确的用法。请一定别把它们搞混了。
月末处决
在这个网站,这一般只意味着一件事:“作为政策过程的结果而故意处决或杀害”。这也是常被滥用的。尝试着只使用“死亡”,或说他们被转移至其他项目或遣送回D级人员编制中或其他的什么。另请参见如何撰写一篇SCP:创意写作提示 “处决”
terminated
On this site, that pretty much means one thing: "intentionally executed or killed as an outcome of a policy process". It's also terribly over-used. Try just saying "killed", or say they were transferred to another project or returned to the D-class workforce or something. See also How To Write An SCP:Creative Writing Tips 'Terminate'
理论与假设;建构理论与提出假设
这些术语的科学用途比非科学术语更为严格。 一个假设是一个特定的,可被测试的陈述,通常遵循“当X发生时,Y会接着发生”这样的形式,比如“当给予其糖果时,SCP-XXX会显露出一个咯咯笑的表情。”当观察或实验认同一个假设时,该假设应被陈述为“被支持的”(不是被证明的——假设无法被证明,只能被证伪)。理论是一种综合的概括:它具有广泛的解释力,因为它将一整套观察过程,有良好支持的假设和科学规律联系在一起,形成一个统一的框架。因此,基金会研究员在做关于一个SCP本质的有根据的猜测时应当是假设性的而不是理论化的。
theory vs hypothesis; theorize vs hypothesize
The scientific use of these terms is more strict than in non-scientific parlance. A hypothesis is a specific, testable statement, typically following the lines of "when X occurs, Y will follow," as in "When given candy, SCP-XXX will develop a giggle fit." When observation or experimentation agrees with a hypothesis, that hypothesis is said to be supported (not proven - hypotheses cannot be proven, only disproved). A theory is a general synthesis: it has broad explanatory power because it ties together a suite of observations, well-supported hypotheses, and scientific laws into a unified framework. Thus, Foundation researchers making educated guesses about the nature of an SCP are hypothesizing, not theorizing.


自然科学

数量与单位

指数:这是个数学相关的术语,很多人似乎都觉得它就,是“一大堆”的意思,但其实并不对。它的意思是一件事物正在以一种越来越快或者慢的速率变化(没错,指数级也可以是变小的意思),变化的形式类似于ekx,其中e指欧拉数(不是自然底数吗?~Asriel),k为任意常数。(2x与e-2x都是指数函数,但x10不是。)说什么“它的坚硬程度呈指数级”是没有意义的,因为 A)没有用来比较“坚硬程度”的基准 B)“坚硬程度”必须要在变化,才可以说指数级。可以看看以下函数的变化是如何越来越快的:: exponential
This is a math-based term which a lot of people seem to think just means "a whole lot". This is not the case. It means that something is changing at an ever faster increasing or decreasing rate (yes, exponential means it can be getting smaller, too) in a manner similar to ekx, where e is the Euler number and k is any constant.(2x and e-2x are both exponential functions, x10 isn't.) Saying something like "it's exponentially hard" is meaningless A) without a standard baseline "hardness" to compare it to and B) unless the "hardness" is actually changing. See how the following is changing faster and faster:
x= 0 (基准) 1 2 3 4 5
2x= 1 2 4 8 16 32
2-x= 1 0.5 0.25 0.125 0.0625 0.03125
x2= 0 1 4 9 16 25
x1/2= 0 1 1.414 1.732 2 2.236
单位的名称及前缀
这会涉及到一些硬核科学内容,所以我将它放在此处而非某个更具体的子类别里面。显然,所有你使用的测量数据都得有正确的单位(请注意我们用公制单位,不是英制),而且需要注意大小写是有关系的。由于用来表示单位/前缀缩写的字母只有那么多,所以科学界会将大小写区分开来,作为拓宽能够用的字母数量的方法之一。尽管如此,有时候重复使用还是无法避免。“L”和“l”不是一回事,“M”和“m”(它既可以是“米”,又可以是“毫”,看你怎么用)不是一回事,“G”和“g”不是一回事,等等等等。在这里放一个各种单位的完整列表太费篇幅,所以可以看看SI单位前缀快速指南:
Unit designations & Prefixes
This covers a variety of the hard sciences, so I'm putting it here rather than in one of the more specific sub-categories. Obviously you need to use the correct unit for whatever your scientific measurement is (and remember that we use metric, not Imperial units), but also note that the capitalization matters. There are only so many letters available to use for unit/prefix abbreviations, and one of the ways that the scientific community tries to stretch them is to use upper and lower case capitalization to indicate different things, and even then there's some unavoidable overlapping. "L" is not the same thing as "l", "M" is not the same thing as "m" (which can actually mean either "meters" or "milli" depending on usage), "G" is not the same thing as "g", etc. It would take too much room to include a complete list of units, but there is a quick guide to unit prefixes:
前缀名称 前缀缩写 倍数因子
垓/兆兆(tera) T 1 000 000 000 000 (1012)
京/千兆(giga) G 1 000 000 000 (109)
兆(mega) M 1 000 000 (106)
千(kilo) k 1 000 (103)
毫(milli) m 0.001 (10-3)
(1/1 000)
微(micro) μ 或 u 0.000 001 (10-6)
(1/1 000 000)
纳(nano) n 0.000 000 001 (10-9)
(1/1 000 000 000)
皮(pico) p 0.000 000 000 001 (10-12)
(1/1 000 000 000 000)
单位名称
有些计量单位来自人名。根据科学界的惯例,它们的简称需要大写,但它们的完整名称在英语里则需要全小写。所以,功率单位是瓦特(英语里写作watt,不是Watt),缩写是W;能量单位是焦耳(joule),缩写是J;以此类推。
Unit naming
By scientific convention, units of measure that are named after people are always written in lower case when the unit name is spelled out in full, but with an upper case initial when abbreviated. So the unit of power is the watt (not Watt), abbreviated W; the unit of energy is the joule (not Joule), abbreviated J; and so on.

物理

射线和波
射线是指物质中发射出的、具有方向和目标的? ~Asriel粒子流,诸如光线和辐射。射线是可以集中的,以影响一块较小(或较大)(? ~Asriel)的区域,但确实也会有射线(尽管量很少)波及到目标。它可以在真空中传播。波则是一种必须在介质中传播的力的效应。声音是在物质(譬如说空气或者水)中的振动(力),所以声音是一种波。波可以指向一个特定的方向,但它会倾向于四处散播,这种散播的程度比射线高。如果没有介质来让它通过,它就不能传播。注:光是一种特例,因为光的特性既类似于粒子又类似于波。这可能会容易搞混,所以请研究一下你到底想表达什么样的效果,再决定写哪个。
ray vs. wave
A ray is a directed, targeted emanation of a substance, such as light or radiation. It can be focused to affect a much tighter (or larger) effect zone, but there will be some spreading at the target, even if it's only very slight. It can travel through a vacuum. A wave is a force effect that has to travel through a medium. Sound is a wave, because it's vibrations (force) in a substance like air or water. A wave can be pointed in a specific direction, but tends to spread out much more than a ray. It cannot travel without something to travel in. Note: Light is a special case, in that it acts both like a particle and like a wave. It can be confusing, so try to read up on what effect you're intending of it before saying one way or the other.
量子物理
指原子和亚原子尺度上的物理研究,因为此时粒子的行为看起来无迹可循。由于连科学家都会在思考量子物理时变得十分头大,所以在这个网站,你所需要知道的唯一一件事就是:永远不要在一篇SCP文档中用“量子”这个词来描述任何东西除非尤 其 是当你确实对量子物理确实有所了解时。
Quantum Physics
The study of physics at the atomic and subatomic scale, where particles react in ways that seem to make very little sense. Since even scientists get headaches thinking about quantum physics, all you really need to know for this site is that you should never use the word "Quantum" to describe anything in an SCP article, unless ESPECIALLY IF you actually know something about quantum physics.
电压
电压又称电位差,单位是伏特(V)或者焦耳/库伦(J/C),用以指代电流中载荷子的每个单位电荷所携带的能量多少。你在干的地毯上走来走去会被静电电到,这就是电压高、电流很低的一个例子。可以将它比作水中的压强。
Voltage
Voltage, or Potential Difference, unit volt (V) or joule/coulomb (J/C), is the measure of energy per unit charge the charge carriers possess in a flow. Example of high voltage , very low current circuit is the shock you get from static electricity when you walk around on dry carpetting. Its water analogy is pressure.
电流
电流的单位为安培(A)或者库伦/秒(C/s),指代电路中的载荷子流动的量。焊锡枪的头就是电流高、电压低的一个例子。可以将它比作水的流量(以体积计算)。
Current
Current, unit ampere (A) or coulomb/second (C/s), is the measure of charge carrier flow in a circuit. An example of large current, low voltage flow would be the current through the tip of a soldering gun. Its water analogy is volumetric flow rate.
功率(电)
功率的单位为瓦特(W)或者焦耳/秒(J/s),指一定时间内能量的变化量。在电路当中,它是电压和电流的点乘。(P = V∙I = VI cos k,k为相位角)。可以将它比作水的功率——没错,这一概念存在于整个物理体系中。
Power (electrical)
Power, unit watt (W) or joule/second (J/s), is the measure of rate of change of energy with time. In the case of electric circuit, it is the dot product of voltage and current. (P = V∙I = VI cos k , where k is the phase angle). Its water analogy is still power - this concept exists across all physics.
介电击穿强度
指一个绝缘体被击穿并开始导电之前,它能承受的最大电场强度。干燥空气的介电击穿强度大约是3kV/mm,也就是说,如果一段空气中要出现电弧,那么每一毫米空气都需要存在3000V的电位差。自然界中,闪电是一种空气的介质击穿现象。如果用水来比喻,它就是一定厚度的屏障可以承受多大水压才会破裂——想象一个水龙头下面绑了一个气球。
dielectric breakdown strength
The maximum electric field an insulator can sustain before it breaks down, and starts conducting current. For dry air, this value is about 3kV/mm - that is, a potential difference of 3000 V must exist for each millimetre of an air gap before the gap can support an electric arc. A natural example of dielectric breakdown of air is lightning. Its water analogy would be the pressure sustained by a thickness of barrier before it breaks - think of a bit of balloon skin tied over the end of a water faucet.
能量
能量可被定义为“一个物理系统对另一个物理系统做功的本领” (维基百科)。它有多种体现形式,诸如动能(移动的能量),电磁辐射,以及势能。能量不能被摧毁或则凭空创造,只能转变为其它形式的能量或者物质。没有所谓的“纯能”,因为能量不可能是不纯的;不过这个词有时候用来指代物质所携带的能量,该种能量会通过高能光子及低质量粒子(诸如介子)释放。此外,请注意科幻小说中的“能量生物”往往是等离子体构造的。尽管等离子体有能量,但依然是物质的一种形态。因为能量可以有很多种形式,如果使用能量对于你的点子来说比较关键,你往往需要说明该SCP用了/产生了/管他什么哪一种类的能量,这很重要。我们不需要知道你的电脑SCP是用电能运转的,但如果你的SCP“发射一种神秘的能量”,我们需要知道它究竟是动能(这玩意会振动),电磁波(它发出光和/或辐射脉冲)还是电能(它上面总是有电火花),等等。
Energy
Energy can be defined as "the ability a physical system has to do work on other physical systems" (Wikipedia). It can appear in several forms, such as kinetic (movement) energy, electromagnetic radiation, and potential energy. Energy cannot be destroyed or created, but only changed into other forms of energy or matter. There is no such thing as 'pure energy', as energy cannot be impure, though it is sometimes used in reference to the energy of mass, which is released as high-energy photons and low-mass particles such as pions. Also note that 'energy beings' of science fiction are often formed from plasma, which possesses energy but is still a phase of matter. Because energy can come in many forms, it is important to specify what kind of energy the SCP uses/produces/whatever, if that energy usage is critical to the concept. We don't need to know that your computer SCP runs on electricity, but if your SCP "emits a mysterious energy", we need to know if it's kinetic (the sucker vibrates), electromagnetic (it pulsates with light &/or radiation), electrical (electrical sparks cover it at all times), etc.
质量与重量
质量和重量是物质的两种不同的性质,不过区别很小,所以大多数人不会关注。物体的质量用千克或者磅(lbm)表示,指一个物体中含有的物质多少。一种测定方式是先测量物体的惯性,然后求出其回转半径,并通过方程I = mr^2来计算物体的质量。物体的重量以牛顿、磅力(lbf)或者千克力表示,是指一个物体受到重力的大小。测量物体重量的典例就是用弹簧秤。如果重力加速度是已知的,那么两个量就可以用公式(F=mg)互相转化。由于这两种单位的定义,大多数不是科学家的人并不区分它们。只要你人还在地球上面,或者(既然我们是基金会的)没有接近某个重力影响型异常,不区分就没有问题。一旦g发生变化,光用千克可能会让人搞混。举例,一个6kg的物体在月球上时(重力场仅有地球的1/6)仅重1kg。简而言之,当你用kg或者磅这类单位,请说明你指的是质量还是重量。
Mass vs Weight
Mass & weight are two separate properties of matter, but the difference is a subtle one that most people don't think about. The mass of an object, measured in kilograms or pounds (lbm) measures the amount of matter there's in an object. A direct measurement of this would follow from measuring the inertia of the object, then working out the radius of gyration for its geometry, and using the equation. I = mr^2. The weight of an object, measured in Newtons, pound-force (lbf) or kilogram-force, is a measurement of the force by which an object is pulled by gravity. A good example of measuring weight would be a spring balance. If we know the acceleration due to gravity, it is possible to convert between the two properties using the equation (F=mg). Due to the units' definition, most non-scientists don't distinguish between them, and it is fine as long as you are on Earth, or (since we're at the Foundation) nowhere near a gravity-altering anomaly. Once g changes, the usage of especially kilograms can get confusing since eg. on the Moon (which has a gravitational field cca 1/6 of that on earth) an object that has a mass of 6kg has a weight of 1kg. In short, when using kg or pounds, specify whether you are referring to mass or weight.
力是指一定的质量所受到的加速度影响(F=ma)。也就是说,一个物体速度(速率)的变化快慢是由作用在它上面的力的大小决定的。可以如此设想:你在太空中扔东西。当东西在你手里、你向前甩它时,它的速度从静止开始不断变化,直到你松手时达到最大。即,当你向其施加力的时候,它被加速了。当你松手时,它仅会向前滑行而不改变方向或者速度,它不受任何力的作用。这可能不符合有些人的直觉,因为当你在地球上这么做时,物体会掉落在地面。这是因为我们始终受到重力的作用并向地球加速。这也是你在电梯开始上行时会感觉自己变重了一点的原因:你确实变重了一点,因为电梯启动时,会产生加速度。
Force
Force is defined as the application of acceleration on a mass (F=ma). What this means is that the rate of the change in speed (velocity) of an object is what defines the amount of force being applied to it. Imagine it like this: you're in space and throw something. While it's in your hand and you're swinging it forward, the amount of speed is changing from still to maximum speed when you let go, so it's being accelerated and you're exerting a force on it. Once you let it go, though, it just coasts along without changing its direction or speed; there isn't any force acting on it. This is slightly counter-intuitive to some people, because if you did this on Earth, it would drop down towards the ground. That's because we're all constantly being accelerated towards the Earth by gravity. It's also why you feel slightly heavier when an elevator first starts moving upwards: you are slightly heavier, because there was some acceleration right when the elevator started.
速率和加速度
也是两个容易被搞混的物理概念。速率是物体沿着特定方向运动的快慢(米每秒);即一定时间内,物体沿特定方向所运动的距离大小(v=d/t)2。加速度则是速率的变化(a=v/t)3,速率可以指物体运动的快慢,也可以指方向(角速度和角加速度)。一辆车中的油门有个更专业的名称——加速装置,因为它的作用是增加车辆的速度。重力始终让我们向地球加速,不然我们就会沿着地球转动的方向直线飞出
Velocity vs Acceleration
Another pair of physics concepts that sometimes get confused. Velocity is, essentially, the rate of travel in a given direction (metres per second), how great a distance something travels in a certain direction within a certain amount of time (v=d/t). Acceleration is a change in velocity (a=v/t), whether it's how fast something is going or what direction it's traveling in (angular velocity and acceleration). The gas pedal in a car is more properly known as the accelerator, because it's used to increase the speed of the vehicle. Gravity is constantly accelerating us towards the Earth, otherwise we'd fly off in a straight line as the world spun away from us.
辐射
尽管大众一般用“辐射”这个术语来指代核衰变产生的辐射,但这个术语本身的含义是粒子或者波穿过空间(或者其他介质)的过程。
Radiation
Though the term 'radiation' is most commonly applied by the public to refer to that produced by nuclear decay, the term 'radiation' itself refers to a process through which particles or waves move through space (or another medium).
电磁辐射
能量的一种形式,由带电粒子发出或吸收,并且带有电场和磁场分量(但它本身不受磁铁影响)。电磁辐射有时表现得像波而有时像粒子:这就是“波粒二象性”。波长会决定电磁辐射种类的不同,波长与频率成反比。无线电波有着最大的波长(微波位于无线电频谱中较小的那一边),接下来是红外线、可见光、紫外线、X光以及伽马射线。后二者也是电离辐射。
Electromagnetic Radiation
A form of energy emitted and absorbed by charged particles, with both electric and magnetic field components (though it itself is not affected by magnets). Electromagnetic radiation acts sometimes like a wave and sometimes like a particle: hence 'wave/particle duality'. Different forms of electromagnetic radiation are determined by their wavelength, which changes in proportion to frequency. Radio waves have the greatest wavelength (microwaves are at the smaller end of the radio spectrum), then infrared, then visible light, then ultraviolet radiation, and then X-rays and gamma radiation. The last two are also ionising radiation.
电离辐射
若是在街上拉住一个人,他/她多半会称之为“原子辐射”。电离辐射是指有能力在不增加温度的情况下使原子失去电子的辐射,其形式包括α射线(由两个中子和两个质子组成,没有电子);β射线(要么是高能电子,要么是高能正电子——电子的反粒子);γ射线(也是电磁辐射);以及中子流(它们的电离效果并不直接作用)。电离辐射的电离和穿透能力因其种类而异。如果人在短时间内受到了大剂量的辐射,可能会引起急性辐射综合症(Acute Radiation Syndrome,ARS);若在长时间内受到照射则可能引起慢性辐射综合症(Chronic Radiation Syndrome)。两者都可被称为“辐射病”或者“辐射中毒”。
Ionising Radiation
A person on the street would likely refer to this as 'atomic radiation'. Ionising radiation is radiation with the ability to remove electrons from atoms without needing to raise their temperature. Forms include alpha radiation, formed of two protons and two neutrons without any electrons; beta radiation, which is either a high-energy electron or a high-energy positron (anti-electron); gamma radiation, which is also electromagnetic radiation; and neutrons (though they ionise indirectly). Different forms of ionising radiation have different ionising and penetrative abilities. They can cause Acute Radiation Syndrome (ARS) if a human absorbs a short, intense burst of radiation, or Chronic Radiation Syndrome if the irradiation occurs over a longer time. Both of these can be referred to as 'radiation sickness' or 'radiation poisoning'.
切伦科夫辐射
这种辐射指代透明介质中穿行的、速度超过介质中光速的放射性衰变粒子,表现为蓝色的可见光。
Cherenkov Radiation
This type of radiation is caused by radioactive decay particles travelling faster than that of light in a water medium. It is visible as a blue glow.
电磁脉冲(Electromagnetic Pulse,EMP)
与大多电子游戏不同的是,EMP并不是某种可以暂时禁用电子设备的电子“眩晕”。EMP是一种电磁辐射的爆发,利用电磁感应现象来使电子器件中产生毁灭性的巨大电流。不严格地说,EMP会使得空间中一定区域突然出现大量的磁性,然后磁性消失。磁性的“量”(术语称之为磁通量)等于该区域的面积乘以区域中磁场的强度(术语是磁感应强度)。如果磁场中有一闭合电路,那么磁感应强度的变化会使得磁通量增加,这会在电路中产生电流,强度与变化率成正比。因此,一旦磁感应强度在短时间内出现了巨大变化(即EMP会导致的现象),磁通量也会相应地出现巨大而快速的改变,电流也会因此十分大。当电流很大时,电路会变得很烫,因此往往会融化,或者使周围的东西着火。所以我们才用保险丝:如果电路因为某些原因出现了过量电流,它会在有东西融化或者着火之前断开。其结果是,暴露于EMP的电子器件的电路会融化,因此被永久摧毁,而非暂时禁用。此外,由于磁通量是磁感应强度和面积的乘积,像手表里的小电路可能不会受到较弱EMP的影响,除非里面的电子器件非常敏感。也可以通过多种方式“强化”电子器件,保护它们免遭较弱的EMP的影响,但没有办法让它们对任意大小的EMP都免疫。作为补充说明,一种可靠的产生EMP的方式是在空中引爆核弹,因为电离层中会发生神奇的事情。如果你的故事或者SCP写到了核弹爆炸,你或许可以考虑一下此种情况。
Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP)
Contra most video games, an EMP is not an electronic "stun" that temporarily disables an electronic device. An EMP is a burst of electromagnetic radiation that uses electromagnetic induction to generate a destructively large current in electronics. Loosely speaking, an EMP causes a region of space to suddenly have a lot of magnetism, and then very little. "Amount" of magnetism (the technical term is magnetic flux) is equal to the area of the region times the strength of the magnetic field (technically, magnetic flux density) in it. Now if you have a closed circuit in a magnetic field, a change in the flux density of the field will increase the magnetic flux, which in turn produces a current in the circuit proportional to the rate of change. So if you have the magnetic flux density change by a large amount in a small period of time, which is what happens when you use an EMP, there's going to be a correspondingly large, quick change in magnetic flux, and you're going to have a very big current. And when you have a very big current, your circuit gets very hot, and tends to melt or cause things around it to burn. This is why we have fuses: so that, if there's too much current in the circuit for some reason, the circuit is broken before anything melts or catches fire. The upshot is, electronics exposed to EMPs have their circuits melted and thus permanently destroyed, NOT temporarily deactivated. Also, since magnetic flux is a product of flux density and area, a small circuit such as that in a wristwatch may not be affected by a weaker EMP, unless its electronics are particularly sensitive. It is also possible to "harden" electronics through a variety of means to protect them against weaker EMPs, there's no way to make them completely immune to an arbitrarily strong EMP. As a side note one of the most reliable ways to produce an EMP is with a nuke exploded in the air, because of some funky stuff that happens with the ionosphere. So if your story or SCP involves nukes exploding, you might want to take that into account.

化学

原子和分子
原子是一般物质的组成单位。它由质子、中子(一般而言,因为氢-1没有中子)以及电子。一个分子则是多个原子连接在一起并形成了特定的结构,可能是固体、液体、气体或等离子体,取决于压力和温度。当你描述物体时,记得“原子”和“分子”不是同一样东西。
Atoms vs. molecules
Atoms are the building blocks of normal matter. They consist of protons, usually neutrons (hydrogen-1 has none) and electrons. A molecule is a simply two or more atoms that are joined together to form a specific structure, which can be either a solid, liquid, gas or plasma depending on pressure and temperature. When describing something, "atomic" and "molecular" do not mean the same thing.
同位素
同位素是指具有不同中子数量的同一种元素的原子。比如说,氘是氢的同位素,但具有一个中子,而氢-1则是零个。写同位素的惯例是元素-(质量数),例:铀-235,锎-252.
Isotopes
Isotopes are atoms of the same element that have a variable number of neutrons. Deuterium, for example, is an isotope of hydrogen, with one neutron (as opposed to hydrogen-1’s zero). Convention for writing isotopes is element-(mass number), eg. uranium-235, californium-252.
离子
离子是指带电的原子,可能是失去电子(增加正电)或者获得电子(增加负电)。原子可以通过以下方式电离:将电子转移给其他原子,高温和极高压力,或者被电离辐射轰炸(高紫外线到γ辐射,各种α和β辐射,中子也可以不直接地使之电离)
Ions
Ions are atoms that have a net charge, caused by the loss (increasing positive charge) or gain of electrons (increasing negative charge). Atoms can be ionised by transferring electrons to other atoms, extremes of temperature and very extreme pressures, or by being bombarded with ionising radiation (high UV to gamma and the various alpha and beta radiations- neutrons can also indirectly ionise).
pH
pH即氢离子浓度指数(potency of Hydrogen),是H+离子浓度的十进对数乘上-1。【举例说,0.1摩尔浓度的H+(1mol/升)对应1的pH值。】在常温常压下的中性水中,由于自电离现象(H+ OH-和水以一种十分倾向于后者的平衡态存在),OH-和H+的浓度都是10^-7,因此中性溶液的pH值是7。增加pH对应了H+的浓度减少,以及OH-的浓度增加(两者在常温常压下的乘积是10^-14),因此形成碱性溶液。降低pH对应H+的浓度增加,因此形成酸性溶液。
pH
pH , or the potency of Hydrogen, is -1 times the decimal logarithm of H+ concentration. (so for example, 0.1 molar concentration of H+ (1 mol/litre) corresponds to a pH of 1.) In neutral water at RTP, due to self-dissociation (H+ OH- and H2O exist in a balance very favouring the second), the concentration of both OH- and H+ is 10^-7, hence the pH of a neutral solution is 7. Rising pH corresponds to lower concentrations of H+ and higher concentrations of OH- (the product of the two is 10^-14 at RTP), hence, basic solutions; lower pH corresponds to higher concentrations of H+ and hence acidic solutions.
RTP,STP
RTP指常温常压(room temperature and pressure,室内温度与室内压力),25摄氏度,1标准大气压。STP指标准状况(standard temperature and pressure,标准温度与标准压力),0摄氏度,1标准大气压。
RTP, STP
RTP - room temperature and pressure - 25 degrees Celsius temperature, 1 atmosphere pressure. STP - standard temperature and pressure - 0 degrees Celsius temperature, 1 atmosphere pressure.
根据酸碱质子理论(Bronsted-Lowry,布朗斯特-劳里酸碱理论)的定义,酸是可以给出质子(H+ 离子)的物质。一般将酸分为强酸和弱酸。强酸(诸如HCl,氢氯酸)在溶液中完全离解,而弱酸(诸如CH3COOH,醋酸)则不会——未离解的酸会存在于溶液中并达到平衡。酸往往与碱产生被称为“中和”的反应,产物一般包括水,而另一种产物被称为盐。
acid
The Bronsted-Lowry definition of an acid states that it is a substance able to donate a proton (H+ ion). Acids are generally divided into strong acids and weak acids. Strong acids (such as HCl, hydrochloric acid) dissociate completely in solution, while weak acids (such as CH3COOH, acetic acid) don't - undissociated acid will remain in solution at equilibrium. Acids tend to react with bases in a reaction known as "neutralization", usually forming H2O as one of the products, the other being called a salt.
根据酸碱质子理论的定义,碱是可以接受质子的物质。一种常见的碱是小苏打(碳酸氢钠,NaHCO34。一样地,强碱(比如碱液,NaOH)会完全离解,而弱碱(例如氨气,NH3)则不会。
base
The Bronsted-Lowry definition of an base states that it is a substance able to accept a proton. A common base is sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3)5 Once again, a strong base (such as lye, NaOH) dissociates completely, while a weak base, (such as ammonia, NH3) doesn't.
碱(alkali)6
指含有OH-离子,并可以将之释放到溶液中的碱。碱液 - NaOH是一个例子,它在溶于水时会离解为Na+和OH-。不是alkali的碱有CaCO3,即大理石。直接暴露于alkali也会导致烧伤,类似于暴露于浓酸。
alkali
A base that contains releases OH- ions into solution. An example would be lye - NaOH, which dissociates into Na+ and OH- when dissolved in water. An example of a base that isn't an alkali would be CaCO3 , or chalk. Direct alkali exposure can also cause burns, similar to exposure to concentrated acids.
一种酸和一种碱进行中和反应的产物。最有名的盐应该是“食盐”NaCl,(NaOH + HCl -> NaCl + H2O),但这只是其中一个例子。大部分肥皂是一种盐,由碱液(一般为KOH或NaOH)与动物或植物的脂肪酸反应产生。
salt
The product of a neutralization - reaction between an acid and an alkali. The most well-known salt is probably "table salt" NaCl, (NaOH + HCl -> NaCl + H2O) but as just an example, most soaps are a salt, made by a reaction of a lye (usually KOH or NaOH) with fatty acids present in animal or plant fats)

地理

矿物与岩石
矿物是指天然形成,由化学成份组成,并拥有明确特性与分子结构的物质。所有已知的矿物均为固体。常见的矿物有石英,钻石,与霰石。而岩石则是基本上由矿物组成,且没有明确的成份,例如花岗岩与玄武岩。
minerals vs. rocks
A mineral is a naturally formed chemical composition that has specifically defined characteristics and a molecular structure. All known minerals are solids. Common examples of minerals are quartz, diamond and aragonite. Rocks are basically mineral aggregates. They have no specific composition. Examples include granite and basalt.

Biological Sciences

Biology

evolution
First of all, we are discussing evolution from a biological standpoint here. Now: evolution is something that refers to changes in a species, not an individual. It's the accumulation of changes to a population that results in a total overall, average drift in the characteristics of the species as a whole that results in the species being better able to survive in its environment. Evolution is neither good nor bad and, in the real world, does not have a goal. Evolution does not think. Saying something is "more evolved" than something else is a meaningless phrase and does not mean "is better/more complex/more powerful". Humans evolved from ancient monkeys, but that doesn't mean that we're "more evolved" than chimpanzees. It just means that we evolved differently than they did.
enzymes
Basically, these guys are biological catalysts. That is, they speed up the rate of a reaction without changing the equilibrium of said reaction or being changed themselves in the process. Virtually all known enzymes are proteins.
genetic structure
This phrase is not a collective descriptor for everything about an organism's biology. An individual's genetic structure includes things like number of chromosomes, percentage of coding vs. noncoding DNA, and how many copies it has of each gene. If you're discussing a population of (interbreeding) organisms, genetic structure includes things like how much of the population's genetic variation is between organisms or groups of organisms rather than within an organism, or how strongly that variation differs across geographical areas.
parasitic vs. parasitoid

To quote Wikipedia:
"Parasitism is differentiated from the parasitoid relationship, though not sharply, by the fact that parasitoids generally kill or sterilise their hosts."
If your object usually consumes or is otherwise fatal to the host, use "parasitoid", otherwise use "parasitic". Both types can use parasitic as a page tag.

binomial nomenclature (courtesy of Photosynthetic)

There is a very specific set of rules for formatting organisms' scientific names. Please use them correctly.

Species names are always italicized. They consist of two words: the first word is the genus name and the second is the specific epithet. The genus name is always capitalized, and the specific epithet never is: Homo sapiens, Cymothoa exigua, Hypsibius dujardini. Names of genera may be used alone, to refer to all species in the genus: Homo, Cymothoa, Hypsibus. Names of higher-level taxa — families, orders, classes, phyla, kingdoms — are capitalized, but not italicized: Hominidae, Hymenophyllaceae, Malacostraca, Tardigrada.

To denote a subspecies, just add the second specific epithet: Homo sapiens sapiens, Ursus arctos horribilis. To denote a variety, add "var." (not italicized) before the second specific epithet: Hebe salicifolia var. stricta.

When a species is mentioned several times in the same report, or when two species of the same genus are referred to in quick succession, the genus name can be abbreviated — but only after the first time it is fully spelled out. At that point, you can replace it with its initial: H. sapiens, C. exigua, H. dujardini.

For further details, see Wikipedia's articles on binomial nomenclature and biological classification.

Venom vs poison; venomous vs poisonous
Though both venoms and poisons are toxins, the terms are not interchangeable. Venoms are animal toxins delivered via active injection, generally through fangs, stingers, cnidocysts, or the like. Poisons can be biological in origin or purely chemical. Poison enter the body via inhalation, ingestion, or direct contact, such as with poison ivy, newt skin, and so on. If you were to eat the venom glands of a rattlesnake, you'd be poisoned, not envenomated.

Neurology & Mental

sentient vs. sapient
This pair gets confused to mean the same thing A LOT, so don't feel too bad for using them interchangably. Just learn to not do it. Technically speaking (which is what we're going for here), "sentient" just means that the creature has the ability to sense and react to its environment. Animals are sentient, some plants are sentient, objects can be sentient if they're obviously reacting to environmental cues. "Sapient" means that it can think (it's right in the name of our species: Homo sapiens sapiens). Most animals are not sapient, no regular plants are, but electronic intelligences might be. A short-hand might be to ask whether or not the creature is capable of being aware that it's thinking about something.

IQ (courtesy of Quikngruvn)

The statistic called IQ (Intelligence Quotient) is defined as a normal distribution with mean μ=100 and standard deviation σ=15. The upshot is that you can calculate what percentage of a population should have an IQ above (or below) certain values, especially when Wikipedia provides these values out to 6σ. Anyway, the percentage of population with greater than a given IQ:

100: 50.00%, 1 out of every 2
115: 15.87%, 1 out of every 6
130: 2.275%, 1 out of every 44
145: 0.1350%, 1 out of every 741
160: 0.003167%, 1 out of every 31,574
175: 0.00002867%, 1 out of every 3,488,557
190: 0.00000009865%, 1 out of every 1,013,684,744

So right now, there should be six or seven people in the whole world with an IQ of at least 190. (Conversely, there should also be six or seven people in the world right now with an IQ of less than 10.) How IQ is actually quantified is left as an exercise to the reader (though the method used isn't so important if they all use the same scale).

What about Marilyn vos Savant and her record high IQ? Essentially, her score of 228 came from older testing methodologies (using the ratio of mental age to chronological age) and so she wouldn't score so high on newer tests, in addition to the inherent difficulties in measuring extremes of intelligence. On this scale, she would score at least 185.

(Drewbear's addition) Also note that essentially all mainstream IQ tests in use nowadays rate on several scales which address different functional areas such as working memory, processing speed and verbal comprehension. They do NOT test things such as personality or creativity, as these are much, much harder to quantify. IQ testing is also sensitive to environmental conditions like how the testee is feeling that day, what the weather is like (seriously. It influences mood and performance), and how recently the testee has had a similar test. It's perfectly common to see scores vary a bit, so someone could get a score of 101 one time and 98 another.

Finally, keep in mind that IQ testing is based on average human populations and experiences. It would be very difficult to say a non-human intelligence has an IQ score of X.

memetic vs. cognitohazard
Read this for a more detailed explanation & treatment of memetics.
amnesiacs vs. amnestics
Technically, an amnesiac is someone with amnesia and an amnestic is something that causes amnesia. HOWEVER, in many older articles these words were used interchangeably to refer to something that causes amnesia. Don't insist that an author use "amnestics" if they've specifically stated they prefer to use "amnesiacs", and don't edit older articles to change this. In both cases, it's treated as a stylistic choice.
schizophrenia and other mental disorders
Too often, schizophrenia is used as a stand-in for a generic or unknown mental disorder or trauma. In actuality, schizophrenia is a specific mental illness marked by a diverse collection of symptoms, not all of which need be present in any one patient. These symptoms include delusions, 'word-salad', catatonia, hallucinations, disjointed thought processes as well as behaviour, and unusual or inappropriate emotional responses, among others. but schizophrenic does not automatically mean violent or dangerous. (It also doesn't mean "split personality"— 'split personality' would be one form dissociative identity disorder might take- if it exists.) Unless you're referring to that particular mental illness (or another specific disorder), you should use a more general term, such as psychosis (a term which covers a broad range of mental disorders, including schizophrenia). Schizophrenia can be treated by 'talk therapy' as well as a huge variety of drugs. In rare cases it may be 'cured', but it is typically regarded as a life-long condition after onset. Given the diversity of symptoms of schizophrenia it is often classified into a wide variety of subtypes and there is considerable debate as to whether it is really just one disease or many. If schizophrenia forms a major part of your article you should at minimum read the whole wikipedia article on it, or the entry in the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders.

Medicine and Diseases

Foreword
In general, all diseases are mostly different. Symptoms, advancement, and how the virus/bacteria function are not consistent from disease to disease. The point is that you know the details of whatever ailment you are talking about. This can refer to genetic disorders as well.
Cancer
"Cancer" is not a single kind, strain, genus, etc. Cancer is a mutation of cells that grow exponentially. Cancer is not an organism. There are thousands of kinds of cancers, and Wikipedia as well as other scholarly journals can give you specifics. Both genetic predisposition and environmental conditions contribute to whether or not someone could develop cancer.
Prions
A prion is essentially a misfolded protein. The reason they cause diseases such as BSE is that their presence causes similar proteins to misfold in a similar way (the process how isn't known precisely at the moment), resulting in a chain reaction. Misfolded proteins don't quite work as they should, which causes tissue damage (all known prion-induced diseases damage the central nervous system) - for example, the holes and sponge-like structure that give BSE its name. The main problem with them is they are hard to denature - the WHO standard sterillisation procedure involves applying caustic soda solution, then putting it in autoclave. The immune system doesn't recognise them as infectious agents either - as a result, prion infections don't get better, and aren't curable, either.
And well, that's kind of it. Prions aren't alive - they exhibit even less characteristics of living things than viruses do. As such, pencil-thick strands of prion that behave like worms or similar nonsense are a one-way ticket to Stumptown.


工程与科技

应力
物体切面每表面积单位所承受的力,一般所用的单位为兆帕(MPa)。与应变的关系可被杨氏模量解释。
stress
Force per unit area of cross-section it's applied at. Usually measured in megapascals (MPa). Related to strain by Young's modulus.
应变
物体每长度单位的长度变化,一般由应力所导致。没有单位。
strain
Change in length of an object per unit length, usually in response to stress. No unit.
破裂应变
指物体在断裂前能被拉伸的最大长度。与抗拉强度有着细微的不同。虽然在一般情况下,物体在这两种特性上的数值大致相似(比如金属的这两项数值对都相对高,而陶瓷的数值则相对低),但是某些物体的这两项数值则是非常不同(比如木料与CFRP有着相对高的抗拉强度,而它们的破裂应变相对较低)。
failure strain
A measure of how far can a material be stretched before it ruptures. Subtly different from tensile strength - while in general, materials rate high (metals) or low (ceramics) on both properties, composites (such as wood or CFRP) are tough (high tensile strength), but their failure strain is low.
抗拉强度
一块材料每表面积单位可承受的最大拉力,指物体在断裂前能被拉伸的最大强度。例如,蜘蛛丝比钢有着更高的抗拉强度,以及橡胶比玻璃纤维有着更高的抗拉强度。
tensile strength
Maximum tensile stress a sample can withstand - a measure of how strongly can a material be stretched before it ruptures. Spider silk has a higher tensile strength than steel, and rubber has a higher tensile strength than glass fibers.
硬度
硬度计量的是在某一材料之上施加力并使其永久性变形的难度。一般可以用维氏硬度试验(HV)来测量。7试验过程大概为将一种硬度很高的材料做成的椎体,以事先决定的负载压进试验样品的表面,然后测量凹痕的大小,并对照硬度表来找出其对应的硬度。硬度较大的材料同时一般也非常易碎,它们不能很好的使塑料变形。(橡胶除外)。比如,黑曜石比起铜来说有着更高的硬度,但同时也非常容易断裂。
hardness
Hardness is the measurement of how difficult it is to permanently deform a piece of a given material by the application of force. The usual way to measure it is Vickers Hardness (HV)8 - this is done by forcing a pyramid made of a very hard material into the tested sample's surface with a predefined load, measuring the indent's size, and reading the corresponding hardness off a table. A harder material will normally also be more brittle, as they usually can't deform plastically very well. (rubber is an exception). For example, obsidian is harder than copper, but shatters very easily.
纳米技术
纳米技术与“纳米机器人”并不是魔法。让我再重复一遍:纳米技术与“纳米机器人”并不是魔法。首先,纳米技术已经被使用于在当今的生产与医疗行业中了,他们可以设计与建造在宏观尺度下难以创造的新材料。其次,“纳米机器人”是一种非常小的机械。由于大小问题,它们不能执行非常复杂的命令。现在使用的绝大多数纳米机械依靠于控制一些分子/原子的相互作用的自然反应,以便移动其他原子或者分子。它们的“编程”一般因为它们的大小与信息储存量而非常简单,它们一般也只会专攻一小部分活动(虽然多数不同种类的机械会能一起工作)。尽管用几百万个纳米机械一起工作并开个“音乐会”一定能他妈的非常强无敌,可它们最终还是需要完全遵守已知的物理定律。
nanotechnology
Nanotechnology and "nanobots" are not magic. Let me repeat that: NANOTECHNOLOGY AND "NANOBOTS" ARE NOT MAGIC. First, nanotechnology is already in use today in manufacturing and medicine in order to design and build new materials that are difficult to create on a macroscale. Second, "nanobots" are machines, first and foremost, only on a very tiny scale. And size restrictions mean that they don't have very complicated instructions. Most nanomachines in use today rely on manipulating the natural responses of certain molecular/atomic interactions in order to move around other atoms or molecules. Their "programming" tends to be very simple due to their size and info-storage capacity, and they tend to specialize at a very few activities (although multiple different types of machines would be able to work together). And while having a few million nanomachines working in concert could definitely fuck some shit up hardcore, they ultimately operate fully under the known laws of physics.

电脑,电脑的运作与软件

upload vs download vs transfer
The difference between "upload" and "download" is as subtle as the prefix of each word: upload implies that you are sending information from the source you are working on to another location, while download implies you are taking it from another location to your own. The terms "upload" and "download" are most commonly used in networking situations (such as from a server or the general internet). With attached devices such as external hard drives and "USB keys", the term transfer is more commonly used (as in "the data was transferred to the external hard drive") although this is personal preference. With optical media, such as CDs, DVDs and Blu-Ray, the term "burn" is used for putting data on the disc.
上传,下载与转存
"上传"和"下载"之间的区别比较微妙。"上传"指将信息从你使用的一端传到另一处;"下载"指将信息从别处传到你使用的一端。 这两个术语通常在网络环境中使用(比如从服务器或者互联网中上传和下载)。"转存"这一术语通常在外接设备上使用,比如移动硬盘和U盘(比如说"把数据转存到移动硬盘里"),不过这取决于个人的词语选择。 "烧录"这一术语通常用于光学媒介上,比如CD,DVD和蓝光碟。
Hardware Terminology
The "CPU" is the Central Processing Unit - it does all the processing/thinking. RAM means "Random Access Memory" and acts as a form of short term storage for running programs - when the PC loses power, the data in RAM is generally lost (it is known as "volatile memory"). The HDD is the "Hard Disk Drive" - it is usually the traditional spinning magnetic platters style (what you would have in most PCs), but can also be used to describe SSDs (or Solid State Drives), which are made using "flash" memory (similar to USB sticks and SD cards, but on a much grander scale). HDDs and SSDs are not volatile, and retain the data stored on them when power is lost. HDDs are extremely susceptible to shock damage, while SSDs are not. The "motherboard" is the large system board, which contains the various ports and bridges. The PSU (or "Power Supply Unit") is essentially an AC to DC converter. USB stands for "Universal Serial Bus" and is used for connecting external drives and peripherals. The term "tower" usually refers to the shape of the stereotypical computer, but can colloquially refer to the whole package. A monitor or screen is the display device - these are generally made from LCD/"Liquid Crystal Display" panels - these, too, are fragile.
硬件术语
"CPU"指中央处理器,它负责所有的处理和"思考"任务。 "RAM"指"随机存取存储器",它的功能是为运行中的程序进行短期存储。当电脑的电源切断时,RAM中的数据也会丢失(即"易失性内存")。"HDD(Hard Disk Drive)"指"硬盘驱动器",这一术语通常是指传统磁盘式的硬盘(机械硬盘),大部分个人电脑都使用机械硬盘。不过这一术语也可以指代SSD(Solid State Drives,固态硬盘) ,它运用的是"闪存"技术,这和U盘、SD卡很像,不过容量大得多。HDD和SSD的存储是非易失的,电源切断时依然会保留数据。HDD非常不耐冲击,但SSD则并非如此。"主板"是最大的一块系统板,上面有很多各种各样的接口和桥线。.PSU(Power Supply Unit,"电源单元") 实际上是交流电到直流电的转换器。USB(Universal Serial Bus)"意为"通用串行总线",用于连接外接设备和外置驱动器。"塔式" 通常指一般电脑的形状,不过口语上也可以指代整台电脑。显示器(屏幕)是显示设备,它通常是由LCD(Liquid Crystal Display,液晶显示)板制造的,非常脆弱。
Software Terminology
The Operating System is the layer between the raw hardware and your applications. The most common ones are Windows, Mac OS X and Linux. A program is a file containing compiled code that is run on the CPU and interfaces with the OS to do meaningful work (such as read data, process pictures, etc). Encryption is where data is changed to obscure its original state. This is generally done by encryption algorithms such as Blowfish, and should be reversable. Non-reversable "encryption" is better described as a cryptographic hash (which outputs a fixed length string of bytes), commonly used for password storage and file integrity verification.
软件术语
操作系统是"裸机"和你的应用之间的层。最常见的操作系统有Windows,Mac OS X和Linux。“程序”是一个由编译过的代码组成的文件,它在CPU和操作系统的界面上运行,以进行有意义的工作(比如读取数据,处理图片等)。“加密”指改变数据以掩饰其本来面貌的手段。它一般通过加密算法来实现,比如Blowfish算法。加密应当是可逆的。对于不可逆的“加密”来说,更好的名字是“密码散列”,它会输出一个固定长度的字符串。密码散列通常用于口令存储和文件完整性验证。
Things to Avoid
Computers are not magic. Software is not magic. If there is an ancient/otherwise alien computer, it is very unlikely we can instantly decode anything - since not only would we have language barriers and need a sort of Rosetta Stone to understand the information, but we would have to figure out the architecture of the computer and the method that it stores things to get any data off it anyway. Without any readable manuals or instructions, a completely unknown computer system is a very large paperweight. Remember that, like most things that have specialists on the site, making up random junk as part of your computer-based SCP will not fly well, and you will get downvotes for it. If you are at all unsure with terminology or opinions on how plausible something is with technology, please ask people who know these things! (Please see Expert Witnesses for those that do.)注:中国分部没有专家团队,因此括号内的内容对中国分部不适用,可以考虑删去。~Asriel
应当避免的事项
电脑不是魔法,软件也不是魔法。如果现在有一台古代电脑或者外星电脑,我们很可能没法直接解码。首先,我们有语言障碍,需要“罗塞塔石碑” 这样的语言资料才能理解里面的信息;另外,我们也不理解这台电脑的架构和它存储的方式,因此我们没法从里面获取数据。没有可读的操作手册或者说明书,一套完全无法理解的电脑系统只是一块大镇纸而已。请记住,就像大部分在网站上有专家的类型一样,在你的电脑类SCP里随便塞一堆垃圾是不行的,而且你会因此被down。如果你对一些技术上术语或者观点的合理性有疑问,请咨询了解这方面的人。

材料科学

钛, Ti
身为好莱坞电影中冶金术的圣杯,这种金属被称为材料中的超人。但实际上它就像Xander Harris一样,虽然又可靠有又用,但它并不是魔法,单独使用时效果并不好。
: Titanium, Ti : The holy grail of hollywood metallurgy, this metal is often treated as the Superman of materials. In reality it's a lot more like Xander Harris - reliable and useful, but it's not magic, and rarely works well on its own.

纯钛拥有大约434兆帕的抗拉强度(一块材料每表面积单位可承受的最大拉力)。而相对而言,铝-铜-镁合金(杜拉铝)一般能达到450兆帕的抗拉强度,中碳钢则拥有高达1200兆帕的抗拉强度。因此,用钛金墙来设计一间收容室跟用空运进口一辆特拉贝特轿车一样可笑,只是拿钱打水漂,而唯一会佩服你的只有一头雾水完全不知道你在说什么的人。

Pure titanium has a tensile strength - basically, the maximum pulling force per surface area a specimen can withstand - of about 434 MPa. For comparison, Al-Cu-Mg alloys (dural) typically reach 450 MPa, and medium carbon steels go up to 1200 MPa. As such, designing a containment cell with titanium walls makes about as much sense as importing a Trabant via airlift would make for an American - you aren't getting the value for your money, and the only people it'll impress are those with no idea what you are talking about.

在这个方面,钛合金则是要更加优秀,其与钢相近,但密度要小得多。9所以,虽然它适合运用于航空航天设备之中,但考虑到在设计收容室时墙壁的重量一般不是问题,所以钢铁将会是一个更好的选择。

Titanium alloys have far better properties in this respect, matching steels, but with a far lower density.10 As such, it is well suited for aerospace applications, but given that mass is rarely an issue in containment cell design, steel is most likely a better option.

虽然如此,在一些特殊情况下,将镀钛加到收容室内可能会很有效,因为它可耐强稀酸与化学腐蚀剂的侵蚀,并且熔点高达1900开氏度。11因此,镀钛可被用来代替断裂韧性低的镀釉,并被用来有效收容热基实体,或会对周边造成化学伤害的实体。


There's a couple of cases where titanium plating on the inside of a containment cell would work well - titanium is resistant to most dilute acids and chemical corrosive agents, and has a high melting point - around 1900 K.12 Therefore, using such designs to contain heat-based entities, or objects that chemically attack their surroundings works well as an alternative to ceramic plating in cases where the latter's mechanical properties (low fracture toughness for one) might pose a problem.



语言学

前言
并非所有语言都有书写体系或是口语体系。当你写到一个说/写其他语言的人时,请务必万分谨慎。即使在最开头敲下“古代语言”这几个字,也不代表你所写的就没问题,因为有些语言是没有古代书写体系的。在当你在文章中提及一种语言时,请确保查阅过它的简史。当你写到一个历史场景中出现的语言时,即使只是随口一提,也务必要查阅相关历史。顺带一提,如今世界上有数种语言,(wiki百科上说有6000到7000种),此外还有更多的方言(例如英语就有英式,加式,澳式,美式等方言)。
Foreword
Not every language has a written form or spoken form. Be VERY careful when you write about someone speaking/writing in another language. Just because you slapped an "ancient" on the front does not justify this, as some don't have ancient writing systems. Be sure to look up the basic history of a language before you mention it in your articles. If you are writing about a language in a historical sense, make sure you look up their histories, even if it is just a passing reference. Additionally, there are several thousand languages in use today (wikipedia says between 6000 and 7000), and even more dialects thereof (for instance, English has British, Canadian, Australian and American dialects, among others).
普通话与中文
绝对,绝对绝对,不要说“中文口语”或是“书面普通话”。这么写会显得你对汉语一无所知,让人以为你提到汉语只是因为看起来很酷。汉语有三百种左右的方言,其中只有一部分是互通的。大部分人说的“中文口语”是指普通话。普通话是许多汉语国家或地区的官方语言,但它并不等价于“汉语”。其他使用较为广泛的汉语方言包括粤语、闽南语、沪语等。大部分汉语方言可以用两种书写体系拼写:简体中文与繁体中文。现代汉语创立于公元700年左右。20世纪中叶的内战结束后,蒋介石和他的军队败退至台湾,毛泽东主席则建立了共产主义政权。毛泽东和一些中国学者为中国的文盲创造了简体中文,而蒋介石和台湾人则继续使用繁体中文。如今,这两种体系都在被使用且彼此互通。当你想写到二十世纪四十年代之前的中国时,记住他们都是使用繁体中文的。而现在,繁体中文是台湾、香港和澳门的官方用语,其余地区则使用简体中文。
Mandarin and Chinese
Never, never, NEVER say "spoken Chinese" or "written Mandarin". Writing these show that you never learned any Chinese and makes people think you included it because it looks cool. Chinese has around 300 dialects, and while some are mutually intelligible, most are not. Most people refer to Mandarin when they talk about "spoken Chinese". Mandarin is the official language of many Chinese speaking countries, but it is not interchangeable with "Chinese". Other large Chinese dialects include Cantonese, Hokkien, and Shanghainese. Most modern Chinese dialects take the form of two written systems: Simplified and Traditional. Modern Chinese was established around 700 AD until the middle of the 20th century, when the Chinese civil war pushed Chiang Kai-shek and his forces to Taiwan while Chairman Mao started the communist regime. Mao and several Chinese scholars came up with the Simplified Chinese text for the illiterates of China while Chiang and the Taiwanese remained using Traditional Chinese. Currently, both systems are still in use and they are mutually interchangeable. If you wish to write about China before the 1940s, it's always Traditional. Currently, Traditional Chinese is only officially used in Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau. The rest uses Simplified.


战术(Tactical)

步兵班: 通常由9至13人组成,并非只是一群拿着枪的糙汉。单个步兵班可下辖若干个以4人为一组的单位,称为火力组,外加一名怪咖班长。
: Squad
9-13 personnel. This isn't just a random conglomeration of guyz with gunz. Grouped into smaller elements called fire teams, which are composed of four personnel each, plus a squad leader, giving the extra odd man.
:下辖三个步兵班,一名排长,一名副排长(排执行官),以及支援人员若干。
: Platoon
Three squads, plus a platoon commander, platoon sergeant, and support personnel.
枪弹/炮弹: 一枚枪弹/炮弹泛指具有完整定装弹结构(弹壳底部具有可以被撞针击打引燃的底火),可装填进相应的枪/炮膛内,以发射药燃气为动力将弹丸推出枪管的弹药。通常(而且为正确术语)的计量为“发”。霰弹枪弹药与上述结构大同小异,并被单独称为“霰弹枪枪弹”13。如上所述,枪弹击发后从武器顶部或侧面抛出的闪亮亮的东西即为“弹壳(shell)”,好比“弹壳铺满了整个犯罪现场”。在另外一些常见的情况下,专门的黄铜材质的弹壳也被指代为“弹壳(Brass)”14。同样非常值得注意的是,霰弹枪不发射“常规的子弹”,大多数霰弹弹药都是内填若干钢制弹丸的,此类霰弹称为“鸟弹/鹿弹(shot)”,同时,另外一些内填单一大弹丸的则称为“独头弹(Slug)”。
: Cartridge
A cartridge is what goes into a gun to be fired, the complete assembly of the casing (which has a primer at the bottom that is struck by the firing pin to make it go off), propellant inside the casing, which burns and produces hot gas, and the bullet, which is the actual piece that flies out the barrel. Commonly (and equally as appropriately) called rounds. Ammunition for shotguns is similarly constructed, with a few differences, and is commonly referred to as a "shell." As a heads up, the shiny part that flies out of the side or top of the weapon as it's fired, the casing, is also commonly referred to as a "shell," as in "There were shells all over the crime scene." This is also frequently referred to as "brass." It can also be noted that most of the time, shotguns aren't firing "bullets." Most of the ammunition fired from a shotgun disperses a cloud of pellets called "shot," hence the name, instead of a single, solid slug. They can be loaded with what are called "slugs," though, which is a single, large "bullet."
供弹具: 弹药在被装填进任何武器之前的去处,通常在影视作品与电子游戏当中表现出块状或香蕉状的空心金属盒状物。子弹即通过供弹具被装填进武器内部。一部分武器拥有着被称为固定弹仓的供弹具,如大多数霰弹枪枪管下方具有与枪管一样长的管式弹仓。另一种完全不同的供弹具被称为弹夹,其形状为一个单一的金属条,能够以特定形式将子弹固定于其上。弹夹经常用于对具有弹簧托弹板的供弹具的快速装填,即将前者固定在后者上方,以外力将子弹压入弹匣/弹仓。少数老旧的武器直接使用弹夹直接进行装弹;由于子弹呈单排串列被压进弹仓,其又通常被称为“条夹”。
: Magazine
This is what ammunition goes into before it's loaded into a firearm, the blocky, somewhat banana-shaped, hollow piece of metal that you see being shoved into the weapon in video games and movies. Rounds are fed into the weapon from the magazine. Some weapons have what is called a fixed magazine, like most shotguns, where you see them being loaded into a tube that extends below and along the length of the barrel. Clips, a different thing entirely, are a simple strip or block of metal that holds rounds together in some way, and are most commonly used to quickly load a magazine by holding the clip against the top, and shucking the rounds down into the spring-loaded magazine. A few older weapons use clips to load rounds into the weapon directly; these are commonly called "stripper clips," as the rounds are "stripped" off into the weapon's internal magazine.
口径: 口径是一种用于衡量弹丸直径与枪管内径的方法。尽管一般采用英制,但即使是公制也被用于度量很多武器和弹药口径的单位。口径并不总是代表着子弹的威力。事实上,绝大多数手枪的口径都比步枪要大得多,如美军在一战与二战之间使用的.30英寸步枪弹和.45英寸手枪弹。如果说有人认为需要.50口径才能消灭/解决一些目标,并且推荐沙漠之鹰或反器材步枪,那肯定是个不靠谱的说法。如果在需要使用.50BMG的场合发射沙漠之鹰的.50AE手枪弹将会显得完全无力,而对.50AE能够穿透的目标使用.50BMG则会造成非常荒谬的过杀效应。如果你之前犯了这种类型的错误的话,无需感到自责。包括电影编剧和训练有素的士兵之内的所有人都犯过同样的错误。
: Caliber
Caliber is the measure of both a bullet's and a gun barrel's width. It is also the imperial unit used to describe said distance, but even if metric is being used said distance is always the caliber of the weapon or cartridge. Caliber is not always directly proportional to a bullet's power. In fact most handguns use much larger caliber bullets than rifles, for example the US Army used .30 caliber rifle ammunition and .45 caliber pistol ammunition during World Wars I and II. So saying something needs a .50 caliber bullet to be neutralized and suggesting personnel use either desert eagles or some .50 caliber anti material rifle would not make sense. If a .50BMG round is needed the .50 caliber AE round the Desert eagle fires would be completely insufficient and if a .50 AE round could penetrate something .50 BMG would be overkill to a ludicrous degree. If you've made this mistake before don't feel too bad, everyone from movie writers to trained soldiers have made the same mistake.

This is by no means a comprehensive list, and we welcome other people making additions (please double-check with staff first through forums and/or PM!) of egregiously abused words or concepts, but remember to keep it civil. We reserve the right to remove or rewrite sections that are abusive or unhelpful.注:由于我们是根据英文站的内容进行更新,所以翻译稿可能不能随意修改。~Asriel

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